Polynesia is probably the best known sub term when it comes to the South Pacific. However, the entire region is subdivided into there major sections, being Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia.
Micronesia is a subregion of Oceania, comprising thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean. It has a shared cultural history with two other island regions, Polynesia to the east and Melanesia to the south.
The region has a tropical marine climate, and is part of the Oceania ecozone. There are four main archipelagos along with numerous outlying islands.
Micronesia is divided politically among several sovereign countries. One of these is the Federated States of Micronesia, which is usually also called “Micronesia” for short and is not to be confused with the overall region. Aside from the Federated States of Micronesia, the Micronesia region encompasses four other sovereign, independent nations—Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, and Palau—as well as three U.S. territories—Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and Wake Island.
Melanesia is also a subregion of Oceania (and occasionally Australasia) extending from the western end of the Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji. The region consists of the four countries of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji and Papua New Guinea. Besides these independent countries, Melanesia also includes New Caledonia, a special collectivity of France, West Papua which includes two provinces of Indonesia, Papua and West Papua Province and lastly Maluku Islands, part of Indonesian archipelago.
Polynesia is generally defined as the islands within the Polynesian Triangle, although there are some islands that are inhabited by Polynesian people situated outside the Polynesian Triangle. Geographically, the Polynesian Triangle is drawn by connecting the points of Hawaii, New Zealand and Easter Island. The other main island groups located within the Polynesian Triangle are Samoa, Tonga, the Cook Islands, Tuvalu, Tokelau, Niue, Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia.